DescriptionUniversity of Texas at Arlington – Technical Writing 2338
The primary audience to perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is
any adult that is willing and able to assist preform the task. These CPR instructions
will teach others how to properly provide assistance to a person is cardiac
distress. It is preferred that the person preforming the task be licensed and have
proper training when preforming such a task as this. However, emergencies
happen unexpectedly and in the event a person collapses it is best to know the
basics so that the person can have a fighting chance at revival. While it may seem
like a basic task up front it is important to remember the needed steps in order so
that you are able to help the person the best you can. For example, when you see
a person collapse you will first call 9-1-1 and then start CPR so that you have
professional help headed your way to help relieve you. This task is not on a limit
and can take time to preform until paramedics show up to relieve you and
continue compressions themselves. In any space CPR can be performed, you just
need to make sure you bring the person to the floor so that you can place as
much force behind your push to increase your chances of getting a heartbeat to
List of items that are needed:
• Phone- to call 9-1-1
• Automated External Defibrillator (AED)
• Flat surface to preform CPR
AED and placement of electrical pads are placed above for reference.
Steps for preforming CPR:
1. Asses the situation and designate a person to call 9-1-1 if they are able. If
no one is able or around call yourself and place the phone on speaker.
2. Locate an AED and designate a person to retrieve it. If no one is able and
you are unaware of any AED present move to step 3.
3. Bring the person that is experiencing the cardiac even to a flat service,
preferably the floor. Place the arms to their side and remove anything
that may be blocking you from preforming CPR.
4. Try your best to alert the person that is in distress and see if you get any
response. If no response is given, proceed to step 5.
5. Make sure 9-1-1 has been contacted and the phone is placed next to you
on speaker. Let the dispatcher know your location and situation.
6. Check for breathing, by placing your ear next to the mouth of the person.
7. Check the mouth for any foreign objects that might be in the airway.
8. If you have an AED and have training, place the electrical pads from the
AED on the persons bare chest. One pad should be placed vertically across
from the heart while the other is horizontal below the heart. Making both
pads diagonal and ready for shock. Following placement clear your hands
and administer a shock before preforming CPR.
9. Locate the center of the chest and start compressions by placing your
dominant hand wide open ( like you are giving a high five) down on the
chest. Then with your other hand overlap the first hand and grasp
between the fingers. You will then compress 30 times down on the center
of the chest, following 2 deep breaths into the other persons mouth.
10. You will repeat this cycle until the paramedics arrive.
11. The paramedics will then relieve you from CPR and take the patient to
the nearest hospital.
CPR visual aid
➢ The compressions are meant to activate the heart to pump blood through.
In some cases you will hear or feel ribs crack. This is a an intense and hard
act, but is vital to the persons life.
➢ The AED is only to be used in emergency. No one should mess with this
unless authorized or trained. The shock being administered can harm you if
improperly given to anyone other than the person in distress.
CPR- Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
AED- Automated External Defibrillator
Commissioner, O. of the. (n.d.). How aeds in public places can restart hearts. U.S.
Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved February 10, 2023, from
Rod Brouhard, E. M. T.-P. (2022, October 18). Are you ready to do CPR? Verywell
Health. Retrieved February 10, 2023, from
What is CPR. cpr.heart.org. (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2023, from
How to Perform the
Heimlich Maneuver on an
The Heimlich maneuver is used when a person’s
airway is blocked by an object. This task is not
specific to one person/profession, so anyone
can perform the Heimlich maneuver. To
successfully preform the Heimlich, you should
be calm and have great patience. This should be
done in a well-lit area with no distractions. The
instructions below will allow you to perform the
Heimlich confidently step by step. This includes
checking the baby’s airway, delivering blows to
the back, chest compressions, and possibly CPR.
The Heimlich maneuver is not limited to a
certain time and should be done until the baby
has a clear airway and is in professional hands.
There are no required materials to perform the
Heimlich maneuver besides yourself.
Steps of the Heimlich Maneuver
1. Verify if baby is choking
Check to see if the baby is coughing,
gagging, or crying. If so, do not continue
to the next steps. If the baby is not
coughing or crying, their airway is
blocked, and you should begin the
Heimlich maneuver process.
2. See if you can grab object
Tilt the baby’s head up and check if you
can see and object blocking the airway.
If you can easily access the object,
carefully remove it.
Caution: Do NOT grab the object if it
is far down in the baby’s throat!
3. Call 9-1-1
Once you are sure the baby is choking,
quickly call 911. If another person is
around, have them call 911 so you can
begin the Heimlich process.
4. Sit down
You should be sitting down while
performing the Heimlich on a baby.
Make sure the area around you is clear
and calm to prevent any distractions.
5. Place baby face down on forearm
Using your thigh for support, place the
baby face down on your forearm with
your hand under the baby’s chin for
Figure 1: Position of 5 back blows
6. Deliver 5 blows to back
With the heel of your free hand, gently,
but firmly, deliver five blows to the
baby’s back. Do this between the baby’s
7. Turn baby onto back
Flip the baby over onto its back resting
on your thigh. Your hand should be
placed under the baby’s head for neck
8. Chest compressions
Using your index and middle finger,
press down firmly 5 times on the baby’s
breastbone (in between the nipples).
The chest should be pressed down 1/3
of an inch.
Figure 2: Position of chest compressions
Repeat steps 6-8 until the baby’s airway
becomes clear. The baby will start
crying or coughing when the airway is
10. Begin CPR if airway is clear but baby is
If the object is out of the mouth, but
the baby is not breathing begin CPR
immediately. CPR should be done until
the ambulance has arrived to take over.
Habrat, D. (2023, January 31). How to treat the choking conscious infant – critical care
medicine. Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved February 10, 2023, from
Marcin, A. (2020, March 26). What to do if baby is choking: Step-by-step first aid. Healthline.
Retrieved February 10, 2023, from https://www.healthline.com/health/baby/babychoking#step-by-step
Instructions are among the most common types of documents in technical
writing. Instructions are everywhere informing readers how to make, assemble
or create something. You may have followed instructions on how to log onto a
computer at work, to download and use an App on your Smartphone, or how
to put together furniture. It is likely that you will create instructions often in
your career if not as a formal document then at least in a variety of informal
written and oral communications.
Keep in mind the differences among instructions, process descriptions, and
• Instructions inform readers how to assemble, make, create
something or perform a specific task
• Process descriptions tell how something works (e.g., how a drug
works to relieve systems of seasonal allergies). While instructions are
about how to use something, descriptions are about how that thing
works (e.g., how to take a prescription drug vs. how that drug works
in the human body).
• Procedures are standardized ways of doing things in organizations.
For this assignment, you will focus on writing and designing effective
Choose a Technical or Scientific Topic. Begin by reviewing the assigned reading for unit
4. You will then choose your own topic for this assignment. In order to give you practice
in technical writing, you must choose a technical or scientific topic. Recipes are neither
technical nor scientific, and therefore, are not allowed. An appropriate topic requires a
series of steps for assembly or various specific tasks to complete. A topic relevant to
nursing may be a good idea, but topics such as “checking blood pressure” “collecting a
urine sample” “making a face mask” and “inserting a catheter” are too common and are
not allowed for this assignment.
Choose a topic involving ten (10) or more steps. The following are a few examples of
projects from previous classes:
How to set up a family budget
How to build a compost bin
How to change a car tire
How to assemble a skateboard
How to change an electrical outlet
How to perform an EKG
How to perform an ultrasound
Write to a specific audience. You must specify an audience for your instructions. In most
instances, your audience should be novice–someone who has never performed the task
before. Sample audiences for the instructions mentioned above include new drivers,
skaters, and homeowners.
Acknowledge all sources. If you use any sources for your instructions, acknowledge your
sources on an APA reference page and include this page with your instructions. If you
use or adapt illustrations from another source, use APA captions and provide a reference
for each illustration.
Regardless of your task, you must include all of the following contents (any
omission of the following contents will result in grade deductions):
1. Introduction. Here you will provide your readers with the following
1. Who audience in terms of its knowledge and need for the
2. What the instructions will allow readers to do
3. What skill level the audience should have to perform the
4. What overall steps needed to complete the task (an
overview of the steps)
5. How long the task will take
6. Where they should perform the task, i.e., in a well ventilated
area, outside, on a flat surface, etc.
2. List of Materials and Tools required
3. Figures (Diagrams, Drawings, Photographs, Illustrations, or Tables)
1. Include captions for each figure
2. Label figures using APA guidelines
3. Give attribution to all figures in references
4. List of Steps, in chronological order, with the following
1. Presentation of ten (10) or more steps with at least one or
two sentences maximum
2. Use of imperative mood, i.e., “Attach the red wire” rather
than “The red wire is attached.” With the second, passive
sentence, readers will not know whether the wire is already
attached or if they need to attach the wire.
3. Presentation of one specific action per step only, e.g., “Turn
the knob one complete turn.” and not an elaboration or
comment, e.g., “Turning the knob will result in a better fit.”
4. Use of the second person (you)
5. Inclusion of all necessary warnings or cautions before
readers will encounter problems
6. Attention to parallel form (see page 97 in the course
And, if needed, your instructions should also contain:
Glossary of terms
Document Design and Figures
Give careful thought to figures and design elements that will make your
Make sure all of your steps are numbered, 1-2-3, throughout
Single space the text in paragraphs
You must include two figures. You may create your own or adapt
from other sources. Make sure you provide figure information for
each one and document with APA standards
Use as many of the four basic design principles, CRAP, as possible
Design your document for consistency (grid patterns, margins,
justification, negative space, indentation, typeface, font style and
Design your document for navigation and emphasis (headings, color,
shading, boldface, italic, and underlining, bulleted and numbered lists)
You must use a two-column format
Submit via Unicheck in Canvas (final draft only). No assignments will
be accepted over email. Assignments incorrectly posted or submitted
to the wrong location in Canvas will receive a 10-point deduction
Required title for final version: your last name-instructions.
Submit the document as a PDF.
o First draft due by 11:59pm CST Friday of week 4
o Peer review due by 11:59pm CST Sunday of week 4
o Final draft due by 11:59pm CST Thursday of week 5
Note: Academic Integrity
You should write the instructions yourself. DO NOT simply copy instructions
you found elsewhere (on a how-to website or your nursing textbook) and cite
the source. That is not the idea of this assignment. The idea is that you will
write your own instructions telling your audience how to complete a task with
which you are familiar, so familiar, in fact that writing a set of instructions for it
should be easy. That isn’t to say you aren’t allowed to consult secondary
sources, but you do need to write the instructions yourself.
If you transcribe (copy) instructions you found elsewhere, you cannot get a 60
or above on this assignment, even if you cite the sources.
If more than 30% (as deemed by Unicheck) of your paper is copied from other
sources, your assignment will receive a 0, even if the sources are properly
If you do not cite the sources from copied instructions someone else wrote,
your assignment will be referred to the Office of Student Conduct for an
academic integrity violation.
Writing instructions can be tricky at first because you’re not use to writing in the
imperative mood nor are you use to beginning sentences with a present tense verb.
Take a look at Figure 13.7 in the course textbook, page 238, for a moment. Identify all of
the elements of the instruction and answer the following questions to yourself:
What is the title of this instruction?
Where is the overview?
What does the overview assume about
its audience? Is this overview written
for a technical audience?
How does chunking work in this
How does proximity help readers
understand the relationship of
Where is the conclusion?
Do the visuals support the step-bystep instructions?
url link to video on how to write instructions
Design Principles & Features
As we have already discussed, the way you design a technical document is as important
as the content of the document. This is a refresher lecture on design principles.
The design elements and features you choose help the reader more easily navigate the
document, better understand the information, and longer remember the information. No
design principle or feature should ever be used strictly for decorative purposes. Rather,
design elements should provide consistency, cohesiveness, navigability, and emphasis.
Of course, the design elements you choose must reflect careful consideration of
audience and purpose.
The Big Four: Repetition, Contrast, Alignment and Proximity
Alignment simply means that you don’t randomly place text or visuals in the
document. Instead, align all text flush with the left margin and use only one
text alignment in a document (avoid centering text). When you place an object
(visual) on the page, make sure it aligns with a like object (visual).
Repetition helps organize the information and makes it easier to navigate.
Headings are a good way to use the element of repetition; use the same size
font in 1st level headings and apply bolding, italics, underlining and other
special effects equally to each heading (if you bold one, bold them all and etc.).
Do the same with 2nd and 3rd level headings. Any design element can be used
to create repetition.
Contrast must be striking to be effective. Contrast helps make your page more
interesting and it can also help organize information. You can contrast fonts,
colors, shapes or just about anything, but the contrast must be strong to be
Proximity simply means that items that are similar should be in close proximity
to one another. For example, illustrations should be adjacent to whatever they
are meant to illustrate.
Other Design Features & Elements
Typography, or the study of type and the way people read it, includes
typefaces, type families, case and type size. Typefaces belong to type families
and they are divided into two classifications: Serif and Sans Serif. For most
technical documents, you will use Serif (Times New Roman, Palatino) because
they are considered more formal. For a less formal, but still professional look
use Sans Serif (Arial, Helvetica). Decorative fonts are reserved for advertising
and marketing and should not be used in technical documents.
White Space is much more than just “empty” space on the page. White space
(margins, space between columns, space between text, and graphics) also
helps organize information and helps the reader more easily navigate the
Columns allow you to put more information on the page and because the lines
of text are shorter, they are easier to read. Columns are a very effective way
to organize information.
Bullet points should be used to list equally important items. Numbering should
be used to enumerate a fixed sequence of steps.
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