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Working memory across the lifespan: A cross-sectional approach
Article in Journal of Cognitive Psychology · February 2013
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Tracy Packiam Alloway
University of North Florida
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A Processing Approach to the Working Memory/Long-Term Memory
Distinction: Evidence From the Levels-of-Processing Span Task
Nathan S. Rose and Fergus I. M. Craik
Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Recent theories suggest that performance on working memory (WM) tasks involves retrieval from
long-term memory (LTM). To examine whether WM and LTM tests have common principles, Craik and
Tulving’s (1975) levels-of-processing paradigm, which is known to affect LTM, was administered as a
WM task: Participants made uppercase, rhyme, or category-membership judgments about words, and
immediate recall of the words was required after every 3 or 8 processing judgments. In Experiment 1,
immediate recall did not demonstrate a levels-of-processing effect, but a subsequent LTM test (delayed
recognition) of the same words did show a benefit of deeper processing. Experiment 2 showed that
surprise immediate recall of 8-item lists did demonstrate a levels-of-processing effect, however. A
processing account of the conditions in which levels-of-processing effects are and are not found in WM
tasks was advanced, suggesting that the extent to which levels-of-processing effects are similar between
WM and LTM tests largely depends on the amount of disruption to active maintenance processes.
Keywords: short-term memory, working memory, long-term memory, secondary memory, depth of
processing, levels of processing
The idea that short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory
(LTM) represent distinct memory systems has a long history (see
Jonides et al., 2008, for an excellent review). Memory over the
short term and the long term has been thought to differ in many
ways in terms of capacity, the underlying neural substrates, and the
types of processes that support performance. Following the ideas
proposed by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), studies in the general area
of short-term retention have been increasingly framed in terms of
working memory (WM), typically involving tasks in which cog-
nitive operations are performed on small amounts of information
held briefly in mind. Although there is general agreement that
short-term retention tasks rely on STM or WM and longer term
retention tasks rely on LTM, there is less agreement on the
cognitive architecture of STM, WM, and LTM and on the relations
between these arguably distinct types of memory. The situation is
further complicated by the possibility that short-term retention
tasks may draw on information held in both short-term and long-
term memory. For example, Waugh and Norman (1965) proposed
that the recency effect in verbal free-recall reflects retrieval from
both primary memory (PM) and secondary memory (SM). Many
current researchers (e.g., Cowan, 1999; Oberauer, 2002; Unsworth
& Engle, 2007) also believe that short lists of items (e.g., four
words) can be maintained in PM (or the focus of attention; Cowan,
ELSEVIER Acta Psychologica 86 (1994) 227-272
The development of selective attention:
A life-span overview ”
Dana J. Plude ‘,*, Jim T. Enns b, Darlene Brodeur b
a Dept. of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 – 441 I, USA
h Dept. of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancower. BC, Canada V6T II’7
This paper outlines research on selective attention within a life-span developmental
framework. Findings obtained in both the infancy-child and adulthood-aging literatures are
reviewed and discussed in relationship to four aspects of selective attention: orienting,
filtering, search, and expecting. Developmental consistencies and inconsistencies are identi-
fied and integrative theories are evaluated. Although a single theory is unlikely to accommo-
date the diverse patterns of age effects, emergent themes are identifiable nonetheless and
the essential ingredients of a life-span theory of attentional development are enumerated.
Directions for future research and theory are suggested.
1. Introduction ……………………………………….
1.1. Historical overview. …………………………………
1.2. Problems of definition ………………………………..
1.3. Problems of measurement. ……………………………..
2. Components of selective attention
2.1. Orienting . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1. Reflexive orienting . .
2.1.2. Covert orienting. . . .
2.1.3. Attentional gaze . . .
2.1.4. Developmental themes
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
‘We wish to thank Drs. Phil Allen, Jane Doussard-Roosevelt, and Bill Hoyer for comments on
earlier drafts of this paper.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: 301 40.5-5906; E-mail: [email protected]
OOOl-6918/94/$07.00 0 1994 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved
D.J. Pludc et al. /Actu P.sychologiccr 86 (1994) 227-272 22x
Filtering . . . . . . .
2.2.1. Auditory selection .
2.2.2. Visual selection . . . .
2.23. Developmental themes
Searching . . . . . .
23.1. Eye movements . . . .
23.2. Visual search . . . .
23.3. Developmental themes
Expecting . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1. Priming. . . . . . . .
2.3.2. Prompting . . . . .
2.43. Developmental themes
Developmental Psychology Presentation Assignment Instructions
Description: This assignment requires you to create a narrated PowerPoint presentation that applies research in developmental psychology to a practical problem during a specific stage in the lifespan.
Purpose: In the science of developmental psychology, scholars conduct research in both basic and applied settings. In fact, one of the more important reasons for engaging in developmental research is the application of findings to practical problems. This assignment will allow you to practice applying empirical research to help resolve a practical issue in human development. As a secondary goal, the assignment will give you experience with verbal presentation, which is a key lifelong professional skill.
1. Select a topic.
a. Pick an issue/problem that is interesting to you (e.g., bullying, character development, job burnout, etc.).
b. Focus on 1 developmental stage (e.g., early/middle/late childhood, adolescence, emerging adulthood, etc.).
2. Locate 5 empirical studies in peer-reviewed journals that address the issue identified above.
3. Create and narrate the presentation (see format below).
4. Students may choose the same topic and use the same material from the research paper submitted for Week 6 but must address practical problems for this assignment, which might require further research.
1. Include a title slide, content slides as needed, and a reference slide.
2. Avoid placing too many words on a slide (no more than 50 words).
3. Start by thinking about what you want to accomplish in your 10 minutes. Make a list of your presentation goals, and then subdivide the goals into relevant components. Have modest goals; you do not need to tie up the untidy details in the research literature. Introduce your listeners to the topic, take them to a moderate depth of understanding, engage them, and leave them wanting to know more.
4. For the introduction, be sure to set up the importance of this particular issue, situating it briefly in context.
5. For the body, explain the issue and how the research informs/addresses the issue. Provide key details (not overwhelming the listener with too many details).
6. For the conclusion, summarize your analysis and note the practical implications/applications.
7. After creating the slides, narrate the slides as you would if you were standing in front of an audience. If you need help narrating the slides, there are many tutorials online.
8. The presentation must be 10–12 minutes.
9. Current APA standards must be followed
Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.
Page 2 of 2
THEORIES o f
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S I X T H E D I T I O N
THEORIES o f
Patricia H. Miller
San Francisco State University
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C H A P T E R 1
What Is a Theory? 3
What Is a Developmental Theory? 7
Of What Value Is a Developmental Theory? 11
Organizing Information • Guiding Research
What Main Issues of Developmental Psychology
Do Theories Address? 14
What Is the Basic Nature of Humans? • Is Development Qualitative or
Quantitative? • How Do Nature and Nurture Contribute to Development? • What Is It
CHRONOLOGY OF DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES 23
ORGANIZATION OF THIS BOOK 23
SUGGESTED READINGS 24
C H A P T E R 2
Piaget’s Cognitive-Stage Theory and the Neo-Piagetians 25
Biographical Sketch 26
General Orientation to the Theory 29
Genetic Epistemology • Biological Approach • Structuralism • Stage
Approach • Methodology
Description of the Stages 36
Sensorimotor Period (Roughly Birth to 2 Years) • Preoperational Period
(Roughly 2 to 7 Years) • Concrete Operational Period (Roughly 7 to
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