Analysis of Writing Concepts Final Draft
Please submit a final draft of Project One to “P1 Analysis of Writing Concepts Final Draft” by the deadline. This draft should represent thoughtful consideration of the feedback you’ve received and should demonstrate significant development beyond the rough draft.
Considerations for Analysis
In your analysis, go beyond summarizing to analyze andmake connections between the writing concepts and your knowledge as a writer. Use the sources or readings from our class to support your ideas with evidence – examples that illustrate your points about these key writing concepts and why it’s important for a writer to understand them.
First, you should define the concepts in your own way – what do they mean to you? Then explain the connections between concepts. How do they work together in a piece of writing, and what concepts are most often connected or which depend on the situation for writing? You might explore a concept in one of the sources/readings – like how genre connects to another concept in the commencement addresses we reviewed. Or discuss how a concept in one of the sources is different or similar to the way it is in another source. You might compare how audience is different across examples, or how the purpose of pieces of writing might be similar even if the contexts are different. You decide what connections to discuss. Make sure you thoroughly analyze the evidence you choose to support your points – make sure you use details or direct quotes from the texts to illustrate your points.
Some ideas for writing about the concepts:
What is genre and why is it important? How does genre impact writing? (Use evidence to support your claims about genre).
What does audience matter? Use examples from the readings to illustrate how a writer considers audience.
How do audience and genre connect? Show through examples from the readings and discuss how the genre is appropriate for the intended audience, and why you know that. Or describe how another genre might or might not have the same effect.
What is critical to know about the purpose for any writing? What other concepts are often connected to purpose, and can you illustrate with an example or two from the readings?
Why is it important to know the context in which the writing occurs?
What is the rhetorical situation? How is it similar and/or different than context? How does the rhetorical situation influence the writer? In what ways? Why does it matter that you consider the rhetorical situation in writing? Use examples from the readings to show how you understand each rhetorical situation and explain its importance.Supplemental Material: Rhetoric
Rhetoric is a way of thinking about writing and speech. You’ll explore a few different
frameworks for thinking about writing this semester: rhetoric, discourse, and genre.
These aren’t meant to be completely authoritative; the goal is to broaden your ideas
about writing by considering different ways of thinking about it. The first framework,
rhetoric, focuses on the persuasive nature of communication. Through the lens of
rhetoric, every act of writing or speech is an effort by one person (or group) to persuade
another person (or group) to do something or to think a certain way.
At the end of this unit, you’ll analyze your own writing. Rhetoric will be a useful
framework for that self-analysis, but before you can do that, you will need some
background information and terminology:
A rhetorical situation emerges when three critical elements are present: a speaker (or
writer), that speaker’s purpose, and an audience. These are the three prongs of the
rhetorical triangle, a common tool for thinking about rhetorical situations.
This is a map of the key components involved in a rhetorical situation, but it doesn’t
bring us any closer to understanding whether or not the argument will persuade the
audience. For that, it is important to think about the rhetorical appeals and the idea of a
The rhetorical appeals are three ways in which speakers can try to make their argument
more convincing to their audience. They are called logos, ethos, and pathos.
● Logos appeals are meant to persuade the audience through logic and reason
● Ethos appeals are meant to establish the speaker’s credibility/trustworthiness
● Pathos appeals are meant to affect the audience emotionally
As an example, consider a child who wants their parents to buy them a puppy. In this
rhetorical situation, the child is the speaker, the parents are the audience, and the
purpose is getting the parents to get the puppy. The child might make all kinds of
arguments: they could insist that the puppy would make them really happy, or that not
having it would make them sad; these would be pathos appeals that played on their
audience’s emotions. They could argue that they would take good care of a dog
because they already take good care of their pet fish, which would be an appeal to their
ethos. They could make an appeal to logos by explaining that studies show that dog
owners live longer and suffer fewer health-related ailments. Ultimately, whether or not
the child’s rhetoric is effective will be determined by whether or not it persuades the
It is good to remember that rhetoric is not an all-powerful persuasive force. There are
some purposes that some speakers cannot achieve with a given audience. A child
might persuade their parents to get them a puppy, but they won’t convince their parents
to get them a tiger.
Rhetorical situations do not happen in a vacuum. They happen in the real world, in
physical places at specific times and involve real people. We refer to all of these ideas
and constraints we have to consider when we speak or write as “rhetorical spaces.”
There are any number of factors that can determine how an audience receives an
argument. In the puppy example, the parents’ response will be guided by the fact that
they are ultimately responsible for the dog, the home, and the child. Do the parents like
dogs? Can they afford to feed a dog? Is the home big enough, and is there an area for
the dog to go outside safely? Does the child have a birthday coming up?
All rhetorical situations happen inside a rhetorical space, and that space affects the
arguments that can be made within it.
To help guide your thinking, here are a few example rhetorical spaces:
● A social media startup designing a commercial for the Super Bowl
● A politician speaking to a large crowd of supporters
● A parent meeting with a school principal about their child’s grades
In each of these rhetorical spaces, writers and speakers tend to tailor their message to
their audience’s expectations in order to accomplish their purpose. That might mean
telling an audience what they want to hear, but it might also mean confronting that
audience with an uncomfortable truth in a way that they are willing to accept. It might
mean being polite, or it might be simply understanding when it’s the right time to be
What Use Is Rhetoric?
Understanding rhetoric is a way to make your own communication more effective, but it
can also make writing a lot easier. Sometimes when we sit down to write, it can be
difficult to begin. What are the right words? What’s the right tone? How do I say what I
By taking a rhetorical approach–considering the audience, the situation you’re in, and
the specific reasons you have for sitting down to write–you’ll find a lot of questions are
easy to answer. If the child from our example is trying to think of ways to begin the
conversation about getting a puppy, they might consider how they’ve won their parents
over in the past, what their parent’s current mood is, and whether the child has a
birthday coming up. All of these ideas are separate from the child’s purpose, but they all
affect the decision to get a puppy, and being aware of them will allow the child to tailor
their message to their audience and the situation.
and to understand the persuasive intent behind the arguments other people are making.
This short introduction is meant to give you some background information and
terminology for talking about rhetoric. Your coursework will develop your understanding
Here are a few useful online resources about rhetoric:
Rhetoric and context: https://rhetoricity.com/resources/rhetoric/
The rhetorical situation: https://openenglishatslcc.pressbooks.com/chapter/the-rhetorical-situation/
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